The Color of Lipstick
The existence of lipstick, or better known as lipstick, is almost as old as human civilization. Interestingly, lipstick did not initially refer to a specific gender, but became a social status differentiator. How does lipstick color the passage of time? Such is the origin.
Pu-Abi Queen Lipstick
The history of lipstick begins with Queen Shub-Ad or known as Pu-Abi of Ur, an ancient city in Sumer, southern Mesopotamia. He lived around 2600-2500 BC. This Sumerian queen dyed her lips with a subtle collision of white lead and red rock. Meanwhile, Mesopotamian women decorated their lips with gemstones.
The use of carmine as a red dye in lipstick dates back to Egypt 50 BC. Reportedly Cleopatra also used this type of lip color. It is produced from extracts of the cochineal beetle, which likes to eat red cacti and secretes a deep red liquid - this liquid is called carmine. To make it, the beetles are boiled and dried and then finely ground. This technique is still applied today.
Emperor Nero's Empress Lipstick
In 150-31 BC, Poppaea Sabina, consort of Emperor Nero, reportedly had at least 100 men to keep her appearance and lip color at all times. After Poppaea, Roman women tended to use red or purplish dyes for their lips. This lipstick is made of ocher, iron one, and fucus (brown algae).
Abu Al-Qassim Al-Zahrawi or known as Abulcassis (936-1013 AD), a physicist, is known as the originator of solid lipstick. He wrote his findings in the Al-Tasreef encyclopedia of medicine which consists of 30 volumes. What is thought to be the origin of today's lipstick probably stems from his explanation of the manufacture of perfume sticks that were rolled and pressed in special moulds. She uses an oily substance she calls Adhan for medicine and beauty.
Queen Elizabeth I Lipstick
During the Dark Ages in Europe, lipstick was banned by the church. Colored lips are associated with satanic rituals. Practically, lip coloring is only found in the lower classes, especially prostitutes. It wasn't until the 1600s that Queen Elizabeth I popularized the trend of red lips with a cold white face. The lip tint is made with beeswax and red plant. Only high-class women and actors/actresses wear lipstick.
American actress Sarah Bernhardt began wearing lipstick in public in the 1880s. At that time the lipstick was applied with a brush. In this era also lipstick began to be produced commercially. Guerlin, a French cosmetic company, became the first manufacturer to produce commercial lipstick in 1884.
In the late 1890s, Sears, Roebuck & Co. from the United States began to create a catalog to advertise and sell their lipstick products. They made it from deer fat, castor oil, beeswax, and then wrapped it in silk paper, placed in colored paper tubes, or sold it in small pots.
Levy Cylinder Tube
The first lipstick to be sold in a cylindrical metal case was invented by Maurice Levy of the manufacturing company Scovil in the United States in 1915. Levy invented a metal cylindrical case that had a small lever on the side for lowering and lifting the lipstick. He named it "Levy's Tube".
Swivel Cylinder Tube
The swivel cylindrical tube shape that pushes the lip stain bar as it is known today is patented by James Bruce Mason, Jr. in Nashville, Tennessee, in 1923. This invention made lipstick easy to apply.
French chemist Paul Baudercroux created a lipstick with the nickname "Rouge Baiser" which was marketed as "Kiss Proof" in 1927. Unfortunately it was quickly withdrawn from the market. When applied, this lipstick is difficult to remove.
Max Factor, the leading lipstick company in the United States, invented and marketed lip gloss (used to moisturise lips or get a glossy effect) in the 1930s. Like many other cosmetics, Max Factor was originally intended for lip gloss for film actors. However, it was soon directed to the casual consumer.
Long Lasting Lipstick
Hazel Gladys Bishop, American chemist and founder of Hazel Bishop, Inc, invented long-lasting, non-smearing lipstick in 1950.
Elizabeth Taylor Lipstick
In the 1950s, American actress Elizabeth Taylor popularized dark red lips. She became a model for a lipstick advertisement called Clear Red which was released by the Max Factor company. In the same era, Marilyn Monroe became another actress who helped popularize red lipstick.
Lipstick Ronettes and Shirelles
In 1960, the rock band Ronettes and Shirelles popularized white lipstick. However, most of the girls prefer darker and colorful colors. At that time, lipstick and high heels were a manifestation of femininity. Women who don't wear lipstick are linked to mental illness and lesbianism.
In the 1970s, the black lipstick trend emerged, which was inspired and popular among fans of gothic and punk culture.
In 1973, Bonnie Bell, the United States cosmetics company, introduced to the public the first flavored lipstick under the name "Lip Smackers". This lipstick immediately became a success among young women.
Glossy, metallic, and futuristic shades are the mainstay of this type of lipstick. He was successful in the 1990s but did not last long. Maybe because not all faces match the effects of this lipstick.
Lip Tint/Lip Stain
In the 2000s, this type of lip color began to be widely known. Generally do not contain wax or oil as lipstick in general. The main ingredients are usually water, gel, or alcohol. As a result, the lips become drier. Even so, lip tint is still an option because of its long-lasting color.
The initial lipstick product actually gave the impression of this matte lipstick. Matte lipstick is characterized by the effect of not glossy lips, giving the impression of dryness. In addition, it is more difficult to clean. This type of lipstick is claimed to be a trend in 2014-2015. It can be seen from the increasing number of cosmetic companies releasing this type of lipstick. Until 2016, matte lipstick is still loved.
Now variations of lipstick can be found in the form of paste (lipcream), stick (lipstick), pencil, or in the form of crayon.